Recently, i was talking to my sister Beverly Giam and was happy and excited to know she has published three papers! I am publishing this post to support her papers! 🙂
By: Beverly Giam
Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We aimed to determine whether the antioxidantN-acetylcysteine can attenuate cardiac fibrosis and remodeling in a mouse model of heart failure. Minipumps were implanted subcutaneously in wild-type mice (n = 20) and mice with cardiomyopathy secondary to cardiac specific overexpression of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST-1;n = 18) to administerN-acetylcysteine (40 mg/kg per day) or saline for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of this period, cardiac remodeling and function was assessed via echocardiography. Fibrosis, oxidative stress, and expression of collagen types I andIIIwere quantified in heart tissues. Cardiac perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were greater by 114% and 209%, respectively, inMST-1 compared to wild type (P ≤ 0.001). InMST-1 mice administeredN-acetylcysteine, perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were 40% and 57% less, respectively, compared to those treated with saline (P ≤ 0. 03). Cardiac oxidative stress was 119% greater inMST-1 than in wild type (P < 0.001) andN-acetylcysteine attenuated oxidative stress inMST-1 by 42% (P = 0.005). These data indicate thatN-acetylcysteine can blunt cardiac fibrosis and related remodeling in the setting of heart failure potentially by reducing oxidative stress. This study provides the basis to investigate the role ofN-acetylcysteine in chronic heart failure.
By: Beverly Giam
Renal dysfunction and heart failure commonly co-exist; it is termed the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). This combination of renal and cardiac impairment presents a substantial clinical challenge and is associated with adverse prognosis. The pathogenesis of the CRS is complex, including chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system, together with reduced renal perfusion. Chronic activation of the RAAS can impair mitochondrial function, and increase mitochondrial derived oxidative stress which in turn can lead to renal injury and sodium and water retention. For example, it has been shown that exogenous Ang II augments renal mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduces GFR and induces albuminuria in rats with heart failure. Administration of Ang II also augmented renal mitochondrial dysfunction in aged mice. Current treatments for CRS, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, exert limited renal protection if any at all. Therefore, novel treatments particularly those that can target renal mechanisms downstream to chronic activation of the renal renin-angiotensin system are likely to exert renoprotection in the setting of CRS.
By: Beverly Giam
Obesity related hypertension is a major risk factor for resistant hypertension. We do not completely understand the mechanism(s) underlying the development of obesity related hypertension which hinders the development of novel treatment strategies for this condition. Data from experimental studies and small clinical trials indicate that transport of l-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide (NO), and subsequent NO production are reduced in obesity induced hypertension. Reduced NO bioavailability can induce hypertension via multiple mechanisms. Mirmiran et al. recently analyzed data from a large population study and found that the association between dietary l-arginine and serum nitrate and nitrite was weakened in obese hypertensive subjects compared to obese normotensives. These data suggest that l-arginine dependent NO production is impaired in the former group compared to the latter which may represent a novel mechanism contributing to hypertension in the setting of obesity.
I just recieve a message from someone who is very close to me. I knew what is going to happen since 3 months back but I didn’t feel much then but now when i got the message from her, a happy message… I feel sad, i never feel so sad for a long time already. I wanted to hide my feeling in front of my classmates but this time round, i cant.. i just cant put a persona anymore.
She is someone who is not even blood related to me. My sister. I don’t know, but what i know now is that i cannot afford to lose someone who is close to me..Sometimes when I am feeling sad and down, she is one of the first person i can talk to without any barrier. Haiz, I am going to miss this sister of mine. The feeling isn’t good. She is going for 4-8 years.. I know we can still contact and talk to each other through skype, msn but the feeling seriously.. Awww really feel sucky
Wishing her all the best when she is in Aus.
*How did you meet 7?
*What would you do if you and 15 had never met?
Didn’t know how to pronounce Augustian?
*What would you do if 20 and 1 dated?
Not possible at all
*Have you ever seen 17 cry?
*Would 4 and 16 make a good couple?
*Do you want to be 13’s friend forever?
*Do you think 11 is attractive?
*What’s 5’s favorite color?
*When was the last time you talked to 9?
*What language does 8 speak?
*Who is 13 going out with?
*What grade is 16 in?
Far away from it
*Would you ever date 17?
*Where does 18 live?
Somewhere in pasir ris?
*What is the best thing about 4?
Funny guy! Amazing as well!
*What would you like to tell 10 right now?
*What is the best thing about 19?
A good leader
*Have you ever kissed 2?
Honestly, i am not sure
*What’s the best memory you have of 5?
*When’s the next time you’re going to see 4?
*How is 7 different from 6?
One is very cute and the other isn’t cute. HAHA
*Is 2 pretty?
Nope. but he is quite handsome
*What was your first impression of 15?
*How did you meet 3?
*Is 15 your best friend?
*Do you hate 12?
*Have you seen 18 in the last month?
*When was the last time you saw 16?
*Have you been to 5’s house?
*When’s the next time you’ll see 10?
*Are you close to 11?
*Have you been to the movies with 4?
*Have you gotten in trouble with 8?
*Would you give 19 a hug?
*When have you lied to 3?
*Is 11 good at socializing?
*Do you know a secret about 8?
*Describe the relationship between 12 and 18.
Umm, none but they met before. At body shop =)
*What’s the best thing about your friendship with 9?
He is a nice guy
*What’s the worst thing about 6?
*Have you ever had a crush on 12?
*How long have you known 2?
*Have you ever been in a fight with 13?
*Does 11 have a bf/gf?
…… DOn’t know haha
*Have you ever wanted to punch 1 in the face?
*Has 21 met your mother?
*How did you meet 11?
*Did you ever accidentally physically hurt 3?
Yes OMG OMG
*Do you live close to 7?
*What is 8’s favorite food?
*What kind of car does 1 have?
None but i believe he will have a good car? *Hint *hint * Daniel
*If you gave 14 $100, what would they spend it on?